BUILD A REAL UFO TYPE SPACECRAFT THAT WORKS... (by rotating certain parts of the craft in contrary directions to utilize space itself as a catalyst for the interchangeable forces of electro-magnetism & gravity)... AND FLY IT TO ME?
Otis T. Carr said:"I started this development in 1937. We were actively making models in 1938. By 1942 we've come up with the basic principles". This is a wood mock-up of a functional operational model. This model has been built and has been activated and it has checked out". Norman Colton said: "What we have characterized a... in our published advertisements as... peaceful atomic energy... and a new electrical age. This system that you see here in mock-up prototype is capable of energizing almost any device... that today is energized by some other system or using some fuel other than the electromagnetic energies that we call Space Forces the forces of gravity and magnetism". (Carr's patent is public domain?)
PS: You will obviously notice when reading the patent that the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) would NOT issue a patent to Mr. Carr (nor to anyone else) that claims a flying saucer or any other levitating disk or spacecraft type that self generates and/or behaves as needed, desired, and explained herein. Therefore, Mr. Carr wrote the patent application as an "amusement device" in order to satisfy the patent office but hid the parts relevant to a Spacecraft within the text (To save you time and headaches, I have higlighted the wording relevant to Spacecraft in bold red in the typed version of the patent located below this paragraph) so you can easily identify the true nature of this invention which is NOT QUITE "an amusement device" because when you build it, no matter what the patent is for and whether you call it "a mistake", "a sideffect", "big boy toy malfunction", or "woops... the amusement device is flying like a spacecraft... whatever dude... RIGHT ON!"... YOU CAN BUILD IT AND FLY IT TO ME?
United States Patent Office
Patent issue date: Nov. 10, 1959
Patent Number: 2,912,244
Otis T. Carr, Baltimore Md.
Application January 22, 1959, Serial No. 788,392
9 Claims ~ (CL 272-18)
~~~~~~~ This invention relates generally to improvements in amusement devices, and more particularly, to an improved amusement device of the type wherein the passengers will receive the impression of riding in an interplanetary space craft.
~~~~~~~ The present invention contemplates a novel amusement device having the overall configuration of a space craft and being formed in various sections with portions of the sections being rotated in opposite directions to give the impression of movement to the passengers. It is also contemplated to move the craft up and down and display an animated movie of heavenly bodies above the passengers to give the passengers and impression of leaving the Earth and approaching a distant planet or the like. This invention further contemplates the provision of electro-magnets, cones and the like carried by the oppositely rotating sections of the device, and windows through which the passengers may view these simulated objects to give the impression to the passengers that they are viewing the inner workings of an interplanetary space craft during flight of the craft. Finally, this invention contemplates the construction of the various portions of an amusement device simulating an interplanetary space craft in such a manner that the device may be easily transported in sections from one location to another and reassembled in a minimum of time.
~~~~~~~ An important object of this invention is to provide and amusement device wherein a passenger in the device receives the impression of flying in an interplanetary space craft.
~~~~~~~ Another object of this invention is to provide and amusement device having a general configuration of an interplanetary space craft and having oppositely rotating sections simulating the movement of various portions of such a space craft during flight.
~~~~~~~ A further object of this invention is to provide a portable amusement device simulating an interplanetary space craft which may be easily disassembled and transported from one location to another.
~~~~~~~Still further object of this invention is to provide an amusement device which is simple in construction, may be economically manufactured, and which will have a long service life.
~~~~~~~Other objects and advantages of the invention will be evident from the following detailed description, when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings which illustrate my invention.
In the drawings:
~~~~~~~Figure 1 is an elevational view of and amusement device constructed in accordance with this invention.
~~~~~~~Figure 2 is a vertical section view through the device illustrated in Fig. 1.
~~~~~~~Figure 3 is a plan view of the landing gear for the amusement device, with the housing around the legs of the landing gear removed.
~~~~~~~Figure 4 is a plan view of the supporting structure or frame work for the outer rotating shell of the amusement device shown in Fig. 1 and 2.
~~~~~~~Figure 5 is a plan view of the central rotating assembly which rotates within the outer shell frame illustrated in Fig. 2 and 4.
~~~~~~~Figure 6 is an enlarged sectional view illustrating the support and drive between the inner rotating assembly.
~~~~~~~Figure 7 is a plan view of the floor portion of the passenger cabin.
~~~~~~~Referring to the drawings in detail, and particularly Figs. 1 and 2, a preferred embodiment of the present invention comprises, generally speaking, a supporting structure and landing gear 10, and outer rotating shell 12, and inner rotating assembly 14 and a passenger cabin 16 extending downwardly into the upper end portion of the outer shell 12. The landing gear and supporting mechanism 10 comprises a vertically extending tubular member 18 around which the outer shell 12 and inner rotation assembly 14 are journaled, as will be hereinafter set forth, and plurality of legs 20 extending radically outward in circumferentially spaced relation from the lower end of the tubular member 18. The tubular member 18 is telescoped over a supporting stanchion 22 which may be in the form of a pipe, and the tubular member 18 is slidingly supported on the stanchion 22 by suitable wheels or rollers 24 to facilitate vertical movement of the member 18 on the stanchion 22, as will be hereinafter set forth. The stanchion 22 is preferably supported in a suitable foundation 25 to provide adequate strength for the amusement device.
~~~~~~~A suitable jack 26, preferably a hydraulic jack, is anchored in the foundation 25 underneath the outer end portion with an extension 28 extending upwardly into connection with the respective leg 20. The jacks 26 are operated simultaneously to raise and lower the landing gear and supporting structure 10, as will be described. A suitable shaped housing 30 is preferably secured around each of the landing gear legs 20 to provide a streamlined appearance. It may be noted that each of the legs 20 is preferably constructed out of a structurally strong member, such as an I-beam, and is secured to the lower end portion of the tubular member 18 by suitable braces 32 and plates 34 to assure a rigid and adequate connection of the legs 20 to the tubular member 18.
~~~~~~~A pair of rollers 36 (see also Fig 3) are rotatably supported adjacent the other end portion of each leg 20 of the landing gear and are arranged to engage a circular track 38 (Fig. 2 and 4) for partially supporting the outer shell 20 and inner rotating assembly 14 as will be described. Also, a suitable drive motor 40 (Fig. 3) is mounted on one of the legs 20 of the landing gear and is connected through a suitable gear box 42 to one of the rollers 36 to rotate the outer shell 12 with respect to the landing gear and supporting structure 10. The roller 36 connected to the drive motor 40 may be suitably chained (not shown) to its companion roller 36 to assure an adequate drive connection between the drive motor 40 and the circular track 38.
~~~~~~~The shell 12 (Fig. 2) is tubular in configuration, with the diameter of the central portion thereof substantially
larger than the diameter at the opposite ends thereof, and is supported in an upright position to give the general appearance of two saucers placed face-to-face. The outer edge portion 44 of the shell 12 is preferably formed of partially transparent material, such as Plexiglas, and is illuminated from within (not shown) to provide a band of light around the central portion of the shell 12. The remainder of the shell 12 is formed of any desire opaque and relative strong material, such as aluminum-laminated Masonite sheets.
~~~~~~~The shell 12 is supported on a frame generally designated by reference character 46 and illustrated in Figs. 2 and 4. The frame 46 is circular in plan, as viewed in Fig. 4, and is substantially U-shaped in cross-section (as shown in Fig. 2) to provide an upper horizontally extending portion 48 and a lower horizontally extending portions 50 which extend from adjacent the support-member 18 outwardly to the central portion of the shell 12. The frame 46 may be easily formed with industrial square steel tubing 52 formed into a truss with bracing of steel rods 54. With this construction, the frame 46 may be easily fabricated in sections for convenient assembly, or the entire frame 46 may be lifted off of the supporting member 18 and transported to another location.
~~~~~~~ Support of the frame 46 and the outer shell 12 is provided by the track 38 (previously mentioned) which is secured on the lower face of the lower horizontally extending portion 50 of the frame 46 in a position to engage the rollers 36 carried by the landing gear legs 20. Additional support for the frame 46 is provided by rollers 56 (Fig. 6) secured around the inner edge of the lower portion 50 of the frame, and rollers 58 secured around the inner periphery of both portions 48 and 50 of the frame. The rollers 56 are arranged in circumferentially spaced relation around the inner periphery of the frame 46 and engage in circular track 60 supported by the legs 20 of the landing gear. The track 60 may be an extension of the upper plate 34 shown in Fig. 3. The rollers 58 engage tracks 62 extending circumferentially around the supporting member 18 to accommodate any radial forces imposed on the frame 46. It will be understood that any desired number of the rollers 58 may be provided around the inner periphery of the frame 46 to provide the necessary support. It will thus be apparent that where the drive motor 40 is placed in operation, the rollers or wheels 36 operated by the motor 40 will engage the track 38 to rotate the shell 12 in on direction around the longitudinal axis of the supporting member 18. The rollers 56 will engage the track 60, and the rollers 58 will engage the tracks 62 during such rotation of the outer shell 12 and frame 46.
~~~~~~~ The inner rotating assembly 14 is generally annular-shaped as illustrated in Fig. 5, for movement around the supporting member 18 between the upper and lower horizontally extending portions 48 and 50 of the frame 46. The assembly 14 is also preferably constructed as a frame out of square steel tubing 52 formed into a truss with steel rods 54 for bracing, and is provided with a double conically-shaped framework 64 adjacent the supporting member 18.The framework 64 is provided to support a covering material 66 of any suitable type, such as the power unit for the craft. The covering material 66 may be corrugated if desired. The framework 64, as illustrated in Fig. 6 is also provided to support the rotating assembly 14 on the supporting member 18 and the frame 46. A plurality of rollers 68 are provided around the lower face of the framework 64, and a plurality of rollers 70 are provided around the upper face of the framework 64 to engage circular tracks 72 and 74
respectively, which are mounted on the frame 46. The rollers in each set of rollers 68 and 70 are provided in circumferentially spaced relation around the inner periphery of the rotating assembly 14. Additional rollers 76 and 78 are provided around the inner periphery of the framework 64 to engage tracks 80 extending circumferentially around the supportiing member 18 to accommodate radial thrusts imposed on the central rotating assembly 14. It will be apparent that any desired number of rollers 76 and 78 may be provided around the inner periphery of the framework 64 to adequately support the rotating assembly 14.
~~~~~~~ I also prefer to support a plurality of conically-shaped members 82 in the outer edge portion of the central rotating assembly 14. Each conically-shapped member 82may be easily formed out of a suitable sheet material such as laminated aluminum or plastic, and is supported at its opposite ends by suitable traunnions 84 to extend through the truss comprising the frame of the central rotating assembly 14. The conically-shapped members 82 are preferably provided in circumferentially spaced relation around the assembly 14, as illustrated in Fig. 5, and are positioned to move through simulated electro-magnets 86 supported around the frame 46, as illustrated in Fig 2 and 4. Each simulated electro-magnet 86 may be formed in horse shoe shape out of any suitable sheet material, and is provided with tubing or the like 88 around a portion thereof to simulated the winding of an electro-magnet. I further prefer to secure a plurality of plates 90 in spaced relation around the upper face of the rotating assembly 14 to simulated capacitor plates in a space craft. The plates 90 may be formed out of any suitable material, such as aluminum laminated Masonite, to provide a striking appearance.
~~~~~~~ The inner rotating assembly 14 is driven by a friction or dead wheel 92 pivotally supported on the tubular member 18, as illustrated in Fig. 6, engaging circular plate 94 and 96 carried by the inner rotating assembly 14 and the frame 46, respectively. The plates 94 and 96 are arranged in vertically spaced relation with sufficient distance therebetween to frictionally engaged opposite portions of the wheel 92. It will therefore be apparent that when the frame 46 is turned in one direction, the plate 96 will engage the periphery of the wheel 92 to drive the wheel 92 and in turn drive the central rotating assembly 14 in an opposite direction by frictional engagement of the wheel 92 with the plate 94. Therefore the various conically-shaped member 82 will be moved successively through the simulated electro-magnetics 86and give the appearance of the generation of electrical energy.
~~~~~~~ The cabin 16 is supported on the upper end of the tubular supporting member 18 and is rigidly secured to the member 18 by bracing 100 to move with the supporting member 18 and to be prevented from rotating with the shell 12 or rotating assembly 14. Additional support is provided by a plurality of rollers 101 carried by the frame 46 engaging a complementary track on the bottom of the cabin. The cabin 16 is constructed out of a suitable framework 102 covered by suitable sheet material 104, such as aluminum laminated with Masonite, on the outer surface of the framework and any other suitable material 106, such as Masonite, around the inner surface of the framework. It will be understood that substantially strong members 108 must be provided in the floor of the cabin 16 to adequately support passenges in the cabin. As illustrated in Fig. 7, a plurality of transparent windows 110 are provided adjacent the outer and inner peripheries of the floor of the cabin 16, through which passengers in the cabin may adequately view the inner rotating assembly 14 and the frame 46.
~~~~~~~ Passengers may either stand or sit in the cabin 16 and may gain entrance and exit from the cabin through suitable doors 112 as illustrated in Fig. 2. It will also be
noted that the upper edge portion 114 of the outer shell 12 is extended upwardly to overlap the lower end portion of the cabin 16. A portion of the upper edge 114 of the shell 12 is removed, as at 116 in Fig. 1, such that passengers may enter the cabin 16 through the doors 112. Simulated port holes 118 are provided around the upper edge portion of the cabin 16 to further simulate an interplantary space craft. It will be noted, however, that the port holes 118 are preferabley covered with an opaque material on the inside of the cabin 16 to prevent the passengers from seeing familiar objects outside of the cabin 16.
~~~~~~~ The dome 120 is preferably provided in the top central portion of the cabin 16 and the under surface thereof is covered with a suitable material 122, such as cloth or the like, which will display a movie scene. A projector 124 is suitably mounted in the central portion of the floor of the cabin 16 to project an animated movie onto the screen 122 during operation of the amusement device. The movie displayed by the projector 124 is preferably an animated movie of heavenly bodies displayed on the screen 122 will appear to come closer to and move away from the passengers during operation of the amusement device to give the impression of interplantary flight.
~~~~~~~ In summerizing the operation of the preferred amusement device, the passengers are directed into the cabin 16 through the opening 116 in the upper edge portion of the shell 12 and through the doors 112. The doors 112 are then securely fastened in closed position and the passengers are thereafter prevented from viewing any object outside of the amusement device during the simulated flight. The driver motor 40 is then placed in operation to rotate the shell 12 and frame 46 in one direction, which the friction wheel 92 drives the inner rotating assembly 14 in and opposite direction. Passengers in the cabin 16 will then view the movement of the inner rotating assembly 14 and the frame 46 through the windows 110 to receive the impression of watching the inner workings of a space craft. Also, suitable lighting effects (not shown) are preferrably provided in the shell 12 to illuminated the moving parts. Simultaneously with rotation of the shell 12 and the inner rotating assembly 14, the jacks 26 are actuated to raise the supporting member 18 will be rather minor, but will be sufficient to give the sensation of rising to the passengers in the closed cabin 16. It will be observed that when the supporting member 18 is raised, the shell 12 and inner rotating assembly 14 are simultaneously raised to retain the vertical relationship between the cabin 16 and the remainder of the apparatus viewed by passengers in the cabin. Also, simultaneously with rotation of the shell 12 and rotating assembly 14, the movie is displayed by the projector 124 on the screen 122 on the dome of the cabin to give the passengers the impression of approaching one or more heavenly bodies. The jacks 26 are then operated in the opposite direction to lower the cabin 16 and the movie projector by the projector 124 may then provide an impression on the screen 122 that the passengers are returning to Earth.
~~~~~~~From the foregoing it will be apparent that the present invention provides and amusement device which will give the impression and sensation to patrons or passengers of the device that they are taking an interplanetary flight. The device includes counter-rotating sections simulating the inner workings of a space craft and those moving sections may be easily viewed by passengers in the divice. Also, the passengers are slightly raised during operation of the device to simulate flight from the Earth and a movie is simultaneously displayed to give the impression of approaching a heavenly body. It will also be apparent that the construction of the amusement device is such that the device may be easily disassembled and moved from one location to another. It will further
be apparent that the present amusement device is simple in construction, may be economically manufactured and will have a long service life.
~~~~~~~Changes may be made in the combination and arrangement of parts or elements as heretofore set forth in the specifications and shown in the drawings, it being understood that chagnes may be made in the embodiment disclosed without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the following claims.
~~~~~~~1. In an amusement device simulating a space ride, the combination of: an outer tubular shell, the diameter of the central portion of said outer shell being substantially larger than the diameter at the opposite ends thereof, means for supporting the outer shell in an upright position with the largest diameter thereof extending horizontally, means for rotating the outer shell about its longitudinal axis, a plurality of simulated electro-magnets carried in circumferentially spaced relation in the outer shell, an annular-shaped frame rotatably supported concentrically in the outer shell, means for simultaneously turning said frame in a direction opposite to the rotation of the outer shell, conically-shaped members carried by said frame in positions for movement through the simulated electro-magnets in the outer shell, a passenger cabin having a floor therein, means for non-rotatably supporting the cabin above the outer shell with the floor of the cabin positioned within the upper end portion of the outer shell, and transparent windows in the floor of the cabin for viewing movement of the outer shell and said frame from the interior of the cabin.
~~~~~~~2. An amusement device as defined in claim 1 wherein said means for supporting said outer shell comprises a tubular support member extending downwardly from the cabin through the outer shell and said frame, a base portion on the lower end of said tubular support member simulating a landing gear, cooperating rollers and tracks supporting the outer shell on the base portion, and means for raising and lowering said base portion during rotation of the outer shell and said frame.
~~~~~~~3. In an amusement device simulating a space ride, the combination of: a vertically extending supporting member, a passenger cabin mounted on the upper end of the supporting member and having transparent windows in the floor thereof, an outer shell extending downwardly and outwardly from the lower end portion of the cabin and then inwardly and downwardly toward the supporting member, a first frame extending radially inward from the outer shell and having a generally U-shaped cross section with upper and lower horizontally extending portions, means rotatably supporting said first frame on the supporting member, a second frame rotatably supported on the supporting member for rotary movement horizontally between the upper and lower horizontally extending portions of the first frame, and means for rotating said first and second frames in opposite directions to simulate movement from the inner workings of a space craft as viewed from the cabin.
~~~~~~~4. An amusement device as defined in claim 3 characterized further to include at least one jack connected to said supporting member for raisiing and lowering the cabin and first and second frames during rotaty movement of said frame.
~~~~~~~5. An amusement divice as defined in claim 3 wherein said supporting member is a tube, and characterized further to include a fixed stanchion telescoped into the supporting member for holding the supporting member vertical, legs extending outwardly in circumferentially spaced relation from the supporting member below the lower horizontal portion of the first frame simulating a landing gear for the divice, rollers carried by each leg, a circular track on the lower horizontal portion of the first frame, arranged to ride on said rollers during rotation of the first frame, and a jack connected to each leg of the
landing gear for raising and lowering the supporting member on the stanchion during rotation of said frames.
~~~~~~~6. An amusement divice as defined in claim 5 wherein said means for rotatably supporting the first frame on the supporting member includes a track around the supporting member opposite each of the upper and lower horizontal portions of the first frame, and a plurality of rollers carried by each of the upper and lower horizontal portions of the first frame in circumferentially spaced relation in positions to engage the respective track.
~~~~~~~7. An amusement device as defined in claim 5 wherein said means for rotatably supporting the second frame on the supporting member comprises a pair of vertically spaced tracks around the supporting member, two sets of circumferentially spaced rollers carried by the second frame in positions to engage said tracks on the supporting member, circular tracks on the upper and lower horizontal portions of the first frame, and circumferentially spaced rollers on the upper and lower faces of the second frame for engaging the last-mentioned circular frame.
~~~~~~~8. An amusement device as defined in claim 3 wherein
said means for rotating said frames in opposite directions comprises concentric annular plates secured around the first and second frames in vertically spaced relation adjacent the supporting member, a friction wheel carried by the supporting member in a position to engage said plates and drive the second frame in one direction upon rotation of the first frame in an opposite direction, means for rotating the first frame.
~~~~~~~9. An amusement device as defined in claim 3 characterized further to include a movie projector in the cabin arranged to project a movie of heavenly bodies on the interior of the cabin and provide passengers in the cabin with a sensation of interplanetary space flight.
References Cited in the file of this patent
UNITED STATES PATENTS
1,754,532~~~Austen et al. ----------
1,868,369~~~Stewart el al. ---------
COPY OF THE ACTUAL FILED PATENT
AND... IN ADDITION... JUST FYI...
The following article was published as a two part series in the February and March issues of "The UFO Enigma". This is the newsletter of the UFO Study Group of Greater St. Louis, Inc. which is the city I used to live in (family and friends still live in STL) -------------------------------------------------------------------- NIKOLA TESLA MAN AHEAD OF HIS TIME (or How To Build a UFO) By Bill Jones Nikola Tesla, inventor of alternating current motors, did the basic research for constructing electromagnetic field lift-and-drive aircraft/space craft. From 1891 to 1893, he gave a set of lectures and demonstrations to groups of electrical engineers. As part of each show, Tesla stood in the middle of the stage, using his 6' 6" height, with an assistant on either side, each 7 feet away. All 3 men wore thick cork or rubber shoe soles to avoid being electrically grounded. Each assistant held a wire, part of a high voltage, low current circuit. When Tesla raised his arms to each side, violet colored electricity jumped harmlessly across the gaps between the men. At high voltage and frequency in this arrangement, electricity flows over a surface, even the skin, rather than into it. This is a basic circuit which could be used by aircraft / spacecraft. The hull is best made double, of thin, machinable, slightly flexible ceramic. This becomes a good electrical insulator, has no fire danger, resists any damaging effects of severe heat and cold, and has the hardness of armor, besides being easy for magnetic fields to pass through. The inner hull is covered on it's outside by wedge shaped thin metal sheets of copper or aluminum, bonded to the ceramic. Each sheet is 3 to 4 feet wide at the horizontal rim of the hull and tapers to a few inches wide at the top of the hull for the top set of metal sheets, or at the bottom for the bottom set of sheets. Each sheet is separated on either side from the next sheet by 1 or 2 inches of uncovered ceramic hull. The top set of sheets and bottom set of sheets are separated by about 6 inches of uncovered ceramic hull around the horizontal rim of the hull. Page 1 The outer hull protects these sheets from being short-circuited by wind blown metal foil (Air Force radar confusing chaff), heavy rain or concentrations of gasoline or kerosene fumes. If unshielded, fuel fumes could be electrostatically attracted to the hull sheets, burn and form carbon deposits across the insulating gaps between the sheets, causing a short-circuit. The space, the outer hull with a slight negative charge, would absorb hits from micro-meteorites and cosmic rays (protons moving at near the speed of light). Any danger of this type that doesn't already have a negative electric charge would get a negative charge in hitting the outer hull, and be repelled by the metal sheets before it could hit the inner hull. This wouldn't work well on a very big meteor, I might add. The hull can be made in a variety of shapes; sphere, football, disc, or streamlined rectangle or triangle, as long as these metal sheets, "are of considerable area and arranged along ideal enveloping surfaces of very large radii of curvature," p. 85. "My Inventions" , by Nikola Tesla. The power plant for this machine can be a nuclear fission or fusion reactor for long range and long-term use to run a steam engine which turns the generators. A short range machine can use a hydrogenoxygen fuel cell to run a low-voltage motor to turn the generators, occasionally recharging by hovering next to high voltage power lines and using antennas mounted on the outer hull to take in the electricity. The short-range machine can also have electricity beamed to it from a generating plan on a long-range aircraft / spacecraft or on the ground. (St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Nov. 24, 1987, Vol 109, No. 328, "The Forever Plane" by Geoffrey Rowan, p.D1, D7.) ("Popular Science", Vol 232, No. 1, Jan. 1988, "Secret of Perpetual Flight? Beam Power Plane," by Arthur Fisher, p. 62-65, 106) One standard for the generators is to have the same number of magnets as field coils. Tesla's preferred design was a thin disc holding 480 magnets with 480 field coils wired in series surrounding it in close tolerance. At 50 revolutions per minute, it produces 19,400 cycles per second. The electricity is fed into a number of large capacitors, one for each metal sheet. An automatic switch, adjustable in timing by the pilot, closes, and as the electricity jumps across the switch, back and forth, it raises it's own frequency; a switch being used for each capacitor. The electricity goes into a Tesla transformer; again, one transformer for each capacitor. In an oil tank to insulate the windings and for cooling, and supported internally by wood, or plastic, pipe and fittings, each Tesla transformer looks like a short wider pipe that is moved along a longer, narrower pipe by an insulated non-electric cable handle. The short pipe, the primary, is 6 to 10 windings (loops) of wire co nected in series to the long pipe. The secondary is 460 to 600 windings, at the low voltage and frequency end. The insulated non-electric cable handle is used through a set Page 2 of automatic controls to move the primary coil to various places on the secondary coil. This is the frequency control. The secondary coil has a low frequency and voltage end and a maximum voltage and frequency end. The greater the frequency the electricity, the more it pushes against the earth's electrostatic and electromagnetic fields. The electricity comes out of the transformer at the high voltage end and goes by wire through the ceramic hull to the wide end of the metal sheet. The electricity jumps out on and flows over the metal sheet, giving off a very strong electromagnetic field, controlled by the transformer. At the narrow end of the metal sheet, most of the high-voltage push having been given off, the electricity goes back by wire through the hull to a circuit breaker box (emergency shut off), then to the other side of the generators. In bright sunlight, the aircraft / spacecraft may seem surrounded by hot air, a slight magnetic distortion of the light. In semi-darkness and night, the metal sheets glow, even through the thin ceramic outer hull, with different colors. The visible light is a by-product of the electricity flowing over the metal sheets, according to the frequencies used. Descending, landing or just starting to lift from the ground, the transformer primaries are near the secondary weak ends and therefore, the bottom set of sheets glow a misty red. Red may also appear at the front of the machine when it is moving forward fast, lessening resistance up front. Orange appears for slow speed. Orange-yellow are for airplane-type speeds. Green and blue are for higher speeds. With a capacitor addition, making it oversized for the circuit, the blue becomes bright white, like a searchlight, with possible risk of damaging the metal sheets involved. The highest visible frequency is violet, like Tesla's stage demonstrations, used for the highest speed along with the bright white. The colors are nearly coherent, of a single frequency, like a laser. A machine built with a set of super conducting magnets would simplify and reduce electricity needs from a vehicle's transformer circuits to the point of flying along efficiently and hovering with little electricity. When Tesla was developing arc lights to run on alternating current, there was a bothersome high-pitched whine, whistle, or buzz, due to the electrodes rapidly heating and cooling. Tesla put this noise in the ultrasonic range with the special transformer already mentioned. The aircraft / spacecraft gives off such noises when working at low frequencies. Timing is important in the operation of this machine. For every 3 metal sheets, when the middle one is briefly turned off, the sheet on either side is energized, giving off the magnetic field. The next instant, the middle sheet is energized, while the sheet on either side is briefly turned off. There is a time delay in the capacitors recharging themselves, so at any time, half of all the metal sheets are energized and the other half are recharging, alternating all around the inner hull. This balances the machine, giving it very good stability. This balance is less when fewer of the circuits are in use. Page 3 Fairly close, the aircraft / spacecraft produces heating of persons and objects on the ground; but by hovering over an area at low altitude for maybe 5 or 10 minutes, the machine also produces a column of very cold air down to the ground. As air molecules get into the strong magnetic fields that the machine is transmitting out, the air molecules become polarized and from lines, or strings, of air molecules. The normal movement of the air is stopped, and there is suddenly a lot more room for air molecules in this area, so more air pours in. This expansion and the lack of normal air motion make the area intensely cold. This is also the reason that the aircraft / spacecraft can fly at supersonic speeds without making sonic booms. As air flows over the hull, top and bottom, the air molecules form lines as they go through the magnetic fields of the metal sheet circuits. As the air molecules are left behind, they keep their line arrangements for a short time,long enough to cancel out the sonic boom shock waves. Outside the earth's magnetic field, another propulsion system must be used, which relies on the first. You may have read of particle accelerators, or cyclotrons, or atom smashers. A particle accelerator is a circular loop of pipe that, in cross-section, is oval. In a physics laboratory, most of the air in it is pumped out. The pipe loop is given a static electric charge, a small amount of hydrogen or other gas is given the same electric charge so the particles won't stick to the pipe. A set of electromagnets all around the pipe loop turn on and off, one after the other, pushing with one magnetic pole and pulling with the next, until those gas particles are racing around the pipe loop at nearly the speed of light. Centrifugal force makes the particles speed closer to the outside edge of the pipe loop, still within the pipe. The particles break down into electrons, or light and other wavelengths, protons or cosmic rays, and neutrons if more than hydrogen is put in the accelerator. At least 2 particle accelerators are used to balance each other and counter each other's tendency to make the craft spin. Otherwise, the machine would tend to want to start spinning, following the direction of the force being applied to the particles. The accelerators push in opposite directions. As the pilot and crew travel in space, outside the magnetic field of a world, water from a tank is electrically separated into oxygen and hydrogen. Waste carbon dioxide that isn't used for the onboard garden, and hydrogen (helium if the machine is using a fusion reactor) is slowly, constantly fed into the inside curves of both accelerators. The high speed particles go out through straight lengths of pipe, charged like the loops and in speeding out into space, push the machine along. Doors control which pips the particles leave from. This allows very long range acceleration and later deceleration at normal (earth) gravity. This avoids the severe problems of weightlessness, including lowered physical abilities of the crew. It is possible to use straight-line particle accelerators, even as few as one per machine, but these don't seem as able to get the best machine speed for the least amount of particles pushed out. Page 4 Using a constant acceleration of 32.2 feet per second per second provides earth normal gravity in deep space and only 2 gravities of stress in leaving the earth's gravity field. It takes, not counting air resistance, 18 minutes, 58.9521636 seconds to reach the 25,000 miles per hour speed to leave the earth's gravity field. It takes about 354 days, 12 hours, 53 minutes and 40 seconds (about) to reach the speed of light - 672,487,072.7 miles per hour. It takes the same distance to decelerate as it does to speed up, but this cuts down the time delay that one would have in conventional chemical rocketry enormously, for a long journey. A set of superconducting magnets can be charged by metal sheet circuits, within limits, to whatever frequency is needed and will continue to transmit that magnetic field frequency almost indefinitely. A shortwave radio can be used to find the exact frequencies that an aircraft / spacecraft is using, for each of the colors it may show whole a color television can show the same overall color frequency that the nearby, but not extremely close, craft is using This is limited, as a machine traveling at the speed of a jet airliner may broadcast in a frequency range usually used for radar sets. The craft circuits override lower frequency, lower voltage electric circuits within and near their electromagnetic fields. One source briefly mentioned a 1941 incident, where a shortwave radio was used to override automobile ignition systems, up to 3 miles away. When the shortwave radio was turned off, the cars could work again. How many UFO encounters have been reported in which automobile ignition systems have suddenly stopped? I figure that things would not be at all pleasant for drivers of modern cars with computer controlled engine and ignition systems. Computer circuitry is sensitive to small changes in voltage and a temporary wrong-way voltage surge may wipe the computer memory out. It could mean that a number of drivers would suddenly be stranded with their cars not working should such a craft fly low over a busy highway. Only diesel engines, already warmed up, and Stanley Steamer type steam engine cares are able to continue working in a strong electromagnetic field. In May, 1988, it was reported that the U.S. Army had lost 5 Blackhawk helicopters and 22 crewmen in crashes caused by ordinary commercial radio broadcasting overriding the computer control circuits of those helicopters. Certainly, computer circuits for for this aircraft / spacecraft can and must be designed to overcome this weakness. One construction arrangement for this craft to avoid such interference is for the metal sheet circuits to be more sharply tuned. Quartz or other crystals can be used in capacitors; in a very large number of low-powered, single frequency circuits, or as part of a frequency control for the metal sheet circuits. The aircraft / spacecraft easily overrides lower frequency and lower voltage electric circuits up to a 6 mile wide circle around it, but the effect is usually not tuned for such a drastic show. It can be used for fire fighting: by hovering at a medium-low height at low frequency, it forms a double negative pole magnet of itself and the ground, the sides being a rotation of positive magnetic pole. Page 5 It polarizes the column of air in this field. The air becomes icy cold. If it wouldn't put the fire out, it would slow it down. Tesla went broke in the early 1900's building a combination radio and electric power broadcasting station. The theory and experiments were correct but the financiers didn't want peace and prosperity for all. The Japanese physicist who developed superconducting material with strong magnetism allows for a simplified construction of the aircraft / spacecraft. Blocks of this material can be used in place of the inner hull metal sheets. By putting electricity in each block, the pilot can control the strength of the magnetic field it gives off and can reduce the field strength by draining some of the electric charge. This allows the same amount of work to be done with vastly less electricity used to do it. It is surprising that Jonathan Swift, in his "Gulliver's Travels", 1726, third book, "A Voyage to Laputa", described an imagined magnetic flying island that comes close to being what a large superconducting aircraft / spacecraft can be build as, using little or no electric power to hover and mover around.